Asingkan (jarakkan) pejalan kaki dengan kenderaan lain
Adalah satu amalan kebanyakan pengamal OSH semasa menjalankan tugas ialah menggunapakai Hierarchies of Control sama ada 6 hierarchies umum (Elimination, Substitution, Isolation, Engineering Control, Admin Control & PPE), atau 3 hierarchies khusus (Engineering Control, Admin Control & PPE) ataupun 4 hierarchies "modern approach" (Avoid, Reduce, Accept & Transfer),
Sekiranya tidak dapat digunapakai kaedah elimination (penghapusan mutlak) dan substitution (penggantian) dalam menangani risiko keselamatan pejalan kaki dilanggar kenderaan dan risiko jenayah pejalan kaki diragut oleh penunggang motosikal, kaedah seterusnya iaitu isolation (penjarakkan atau pelitupan) boleh digunapakai.
Kaedah isolation untuk pejalan kaki dari pengguna jalan raya yang lain ini telah lama diamalkan di beberapa buah Negara maju yang lain. Malah terdapat peruntukkan di beberapa buah pihak berkuasa tempatan mewajibkan rekabentuk jalan raya mempunyai asas-asas isolation ini.
Berikut adalah satu artikel berkaitan keselamatan pejalan kaki ini.
Apapun tindakan yang bakal diambil, pengharaman motosikal (kaedah elimination – penghapusan mutlak?) bukanlah satu tindakan yang bijak sebagai preventive action dalam menangani risiko keselamatan dilanggar dan jenayah ragut.
Pedestrian Accidents and Fatalities: Taking Steps to Keep Pedestrians Safe
When we think about car accidents and other motor vehicle accidents, we tend to think only vehicle involved in the accident. However, in 2008, the National Administration of Highway Traffic Safety reports that 69,000 pedestrians injured in motor vehicle accidents and 4,378 pedestrians were killed in the accident. Pedestrian deaths accounted for 12 percent of all motor vehicle crash deaths.
I have represented many pedestrians who have been hit by a car or truck. I have been successful in winning compensation for the injury my client has suffered. The driver was a mistake and we reserve the right to hold them accountable for the harm my client. Even so, each client would prefer that the accident never happened. As pedestrians and drivers, we all can take steps to improve pedestrian safety.
Risk Factors and Pedestrian Accidents
The study reveals some facts about pedestrians injured in motor vehicle accidents:
According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 72 percent of all pedestrian deaths occurred in urban areas. This finding makes sense because there are more pedestrians in these areas. Last year (2009) was a bad year for pedestrian deaths in New York City. While victims of overall traffic deaths dropped to 256, the lowest ever recorded, pedestrian deaths rose 151-155.
In 38 percent of pedestrian deaths, pedestrians have the amount of alcohol in the blood (BAC) of 0.08 or higher, which means that 38 percent of victims are legally drunk. Just as you should not be drinking and driving, you do not have to walk in crowded areas when you drink.
Pedestrian accidents are most likely to occur from 6 pm to midnight, meaning at dusk or at night. Friday and Saturday night saw more pedestrian accidents than any other time.
The majority of pedestrian deaths occur at locations other than intersections. Non-crossing deaths tend to occur either on the highway or highways or in non-sidewalk areas where pedestrians can walk to the street in a location where drivers do not expect to see them.
Elderly population particularly vulnerable to pedestrian accidents and deaths. The New York Post found that "although the 60-75 make up only 17 percent of the population in New York City, Westchester County, and Long Island, they account for 42 percent of pedestrian deaths." The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration reported that in 2008, the number of pedestrian deaths among those 70 and older was 22 per million people, 61 percent higher than the death rate for those younger than 70.
Improve Pedestrian Safety
Statistics suggest ways to reduce pedestrian accidents:
(i) Better road design
(ii) Better traffic enforcement
(iii) Better decision-making by pedestrians
The Federal Highway Administration has established a focused plan to reduce pedestrian deaths in select areas, including New York State and New York City. You can read more of their plans here. American Association of Retired People (AARP) produced in May 2010 study on the safety of pedestrians in the northern part of the five New York County. You can read the study here and see how it applies to New York City, Long Island and Westchester. New York Cycling Coalition issued guidelines to improve pedestrian and bicycle safety in New York. You can read the report here.
Better road design will save the lives of pedestrians
A 2003 study published in the American Journal of Public Health found three categories of road design improvements that can reduce pedestrian accidents:
(i) Separate pedestrians and vehicles: Pedestrians and vehicles do not mix. By creating structures and systems to keep them apart, we keep pedestrians safer.
(ii) Increase pedestrian visibility.
(iii) Reduce the speed of the vehicle in an area where there is likely to be a pedestrian.
In one example of better road design, security has been increased due to structural changes at the intersection of 9th Avenue and 23rd Street in New York City, near South housing complex with many elderly residents Penn. New York City Council in collaboration with AARP to other road improvements that will improve pedestrian safety. You can read more at Streetsblog.
Traffic Enforcement Can Save Lives Better Pedestrian
Traffic enforcement can make a difference in two main ways. Vehicles that comply with the speed limit is less likely to be involved in a pedestrian accident or other type of motor vehicle accidents. More importantly, enforce traffic rules at intersections and crossings will save lives, especially the lives of older people who tend to cross more slowly. We do not need new laws as much as we need to ticket cars that block crossings or illegal entry, running a red light or rolling through a stop sign.
Better Education and Creating a Better Option
Insurance Institute for Highway Safety released a report in 2002 that claimed, "Pedestrians are more likely than drivers to be judged at fault in collisions (50 percent versus 39 percent with the remainder either shared or unknown error)." Simply put, to make a better choice, can reduce the likelihood of pedestrian accidents.
According to a study published in the UK, public education programs have little effect with pedestrians, except for the kids. Children benefit from programs that stress crosses in the corner of the street, look both ways and use caution around cars. Educational programs for children have reduced pedestrian deaths.
For the rest of us, we have to follow some simple rules:
(i) Do not drink and walk.
(ii) Cross in the corner, not in the middle of the road.
(iii) Use sidewalks when possible.
(iv) When walking on the traffic side, the face and stay as far out of traffic as possible.
If you get stuck on highways or interstates, roads may pull away and stay in your car. Use the phone to call for help or put a white handkerchief on your door handle. If you decide to walk along the highway where cars are moving at an incredible speed and do not expect to see pedestrians you dramatically increase your chances hit by a car.
If possible, avoid walking during dusk or after dark.
Do all you can to make yourself visible. If you have to walk at dusk or in the dark, wear reflective materials, bring a flashlight and tried to run well-lit areas. When I go walking or running, I wear a reflective vest and carrying a small flashlight.
Always give the car benefit of the doubt. The driver may be wrong, but if a car hits you, you will lose. If we walk around, we need to do all we can to ensure our safety.
If you or a loved one suffered injuries as a pedestrian, you have to take all the necessary steps to receive medical care and you have to take the necessary steps to hold drivers accountable for any negligence he might have done.
I hope you find this information useful. Please contact me at 1-800-660-1466 or email me at firstname.lastname@example.org if you have comments, questions or would like assistance with pedestrian accident cases.
This material is intended for information purposes only. It is not intended as legal advice. To receive legal advice, you should consult with an attorney.